What you need to know about the stages of prostate cancer:
* Stage of prostate cancer depend on tumor size, its characteristics, and possibly spread.
* On system Dzhyuit-Whittemora prostate cancer is classified by stages A, B, C and D.
* Cancer stages A and B restricted most prostate gland.
* In addition, for classification of prostate cancer is used and applied and the international system TNM (tumor size, nature and the presence of lymph node metastases).
Thus, the physician classifies the stages of prostate cancer tumor size, its characteristics and the presence of metastases. As already mentioned, for the classification of stages of prostate cancer used two systems: a system Dzhyuit-Whittemora and the international system of TNM.
In this classification system for prostate cancer allocates stage A, B, C and D. Stages A and B are treatable. Stages C and D are treated, but their adverse prognosis. In order to clarify certain conditions of each stage are used substages, which are indicated by numbers. For example, stage B1 cancer is characterized by a single node, which is located in one lobe of the prostate.
This is the earliest stage, it does not show any symptoms. Cancer cells are located in the prostate.
* A1 – cancer cells are well differentiated, marked their moderate anomaly.
* 2 – moderately or poorly differentiate cancer cells in several locations of the prostate.
The tumor is located within the prostate, but it is palpable (ie, detectable finger doctor) and / or determined by elevated levels of PSA.
* B0 – a tumor within the prostate, nepalpiruetsya; PSA level increased.
* B1 – a single tumor site in one lobe of the prostate.
* B2 – extensive growth of tumors in one or both lobes of the prostate.
Cancer cells were found outside the prostate capsule (membrane that covers the prostate). Tumor extends to adjacent organs and / or seminal vesicles.
* C1 – tumor grow beyond the prostate capsule.
* C2 – blocks a tumor of the urethra or bladder.
It is noted metastases in regional lymph nodes or to distant organs and tissues (liver, lungs, bones).
* D0 – metastases, clinically detectable, it increases the level of PSA.
* D1 – affected regional lymph prostate protocol reviews nodes.
* D2 – affects the distant lymph nodes, organs and tissues.
* D3 – metastases after treatment.
T – Primary tumor.
* TX – insufficient data to assess the primary tumor.
* T0 – the primary tumor is not determined.
* T1 – tumor clinically manifested, not palpable nor visualized by special methods
– T1a – tumor accidentally found during histological examination and less than 5% of resected tissue.
– T1b – tumor accidentally found during histological examination and is more than 5% of resected tissue.
– T1s – a tumor is diagnosed via needle biopsy (produced in connection with high level of prostate-specific antigen).
* T2 – tumor limited to prostate or distributed in the capsule.
– T2a – tumor affects half of one share or less.
– T2B – cancer affects more than half of one share, but not both lobes.
– T2c – tumor affects both share. Note. The tumor, diagnosed using needle biopsy in one or both lobes, but palpable and nevizualiziruemaya classified as T1s.
* T3 – tumor extends beyond the capsule of the prostate gland.
– T3a – tumor extends beyond the capsule (one-or two-sided).
– T3b – tumor extends to the seminal vesicle (s). Note. The tumor on the tip of the prostate gland or in the capsule (but not beyond) the prostate is classified as T2, not T3.
* T4 – nesmeschaemaya tumor or tumor spread to neighboring structures (but not the seminal vesicles): bladder neck, external sphincter, rectum, muscle that lifts the anus, and / or pelvic wall.